Tips to evade from Heat Rash

Health Tips: Heat rash occurs when an infant's pores become blocked, usually during hot, humid weather.
 Tips to help prevent from heat rash:
  • Dress baby in clothes that are lightweight and made of cotton.
  • Keep baby in an Air-conditioned room during hot weather. Turn on a fan in baby's room when air conditioning isn't available.
  • Skip ointments, creams or powders on baby's skin.
  • Do your best to make sure that baby doesn't get too warm and that the skin stays dry?
Related Sites: Pharmacyproductinfo, Pharmacy News.
 
 

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    Spot a Liar


    Is it possible to identify a liar by the shape of the nose, lips or eyebrows? Is it possible to judge by a person’s appearance how truthful he/she is? It turns out, yes and yes!

    The Italian Psicologia e Salute journal has published the results of a curious study by the British scientists during which they identified what features of appearance were adherent to honest and dishonest people.

    The experts have examined the faces of political leaders of different epochs and countries (predominantly of the male sex) and have obtained the formulas of “honest” and “unfair” appearance. According to the authors of the study, features of appearance of an honest person are:

    • an oval or round shape of the face;
    • a soft jawline;
    • large, round, and bright eyes;
    • a clearly delineated medium-sized nose;
    • not very thick eyebrows;
    • a thin bridge of nose;
    • a large mouth with thin lips.

    Whereas dishonest men, according to the British psychologists and physiognomists, have the following features:

    • an angular, sharply defined, or elongated face;
    • a sharp chin;
    • thick, bushy eyebrows;
    • small and widely set eyes;
    • large nostrils and a broad bridge of nose;
    • a small mouth with thick lips.

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    Lottery Dreams of Men and Women


    There’s always a big win at lottery and it costs nothing to dream – moreover, so many people are willing to dream. EuroMillions commissioned a survey with an aim to knock together lists of things “which are beyond [people’s] wildest dreams.” Imagine you won a whooping big jackpot… What would you buy?

    While you are pondering on it sorting through your wishes, most women go for a holiday cottage, a diamond ring from Tiffany and enlisting the services of a personal trainer.

    Not so with men – they prefer a Manhattan penthouse to a country house, an iPhone 5 to a sparkler and an Aston Martin Vantage 8 to an opportunity to get personal workouts.

    The poll embracing 3,000 people showed a great difference between men’s and women’s desires. A spokesperson for EuroMillions who called the two lists “fascinating” pointed out that women delight in designer fashion and foster some ideas towards making their home more stylish – whereas with men the heavyweights are “the very latest developments in technology and vehicles alike.”

    Many people, given a chance, are not averse to having a GulfStream G6 private jet and a Princess hand-built yacht. A vineyard is also among the desired possessions. Men showed their romantic side in wishing to have a castle – a dream that doesn’t seem to visit women at all.

    The results reveal that the average woman would be quite happy to get a new wardrobe with high-profile tags draining, no doubt, the jackpot in a matter of days.

    Women Would Spend the Jackpot Winning on:

    • from £200,000 to £425,000 for holiday homes in Tuscany, Cornwall and places like that;
    • from £10,000 to £48,000 for a car like Audi TT convertible;
    • from £2,000 to £10,000 for jewelry from Tiffany;
    • from £500 for good shoes to over £2,000 for Christian Louboutin stilettos;
    • around £826 for a SMEG fridge;
    • around £30 per session for personal training.

    Men Would Use the Jackpot Winnings to Pay:

    • from £300,000 for a penthouse apartment in Manhattan to £1M for a castle;
    • from £100 for an Aston Martin Vantage V8 to £1M for a Bugatti Veyron;
    • from £110,000 for a helicopter to £36M for a G6 private jet;
    • from £200 for an iPhone 5 to £600 for an iPad 2.

    Also men think it worthwhile to dish out about £100 for cup final tickets and £300,000 for a Princess bespoke hand-built yacht.

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    Do Women Want


    American experts have concluded that the answer to the perennial question about what women want tortures men and is extremely difficult, primarily because the right answer is most often unknown even to the ladies themselves.

    According to the scientists, this is due to the fact that most girls, starting in adolescence, simply do not have enough time to think about what they really need and what can bring them joy.

    During the experiment, the researchers asked the volunteering participants to fill out a questionnaire which included a variety of questions regarding their overall health, their suffered illnesses or substance abuse experience. In particular, the girls also were asked to name three of their most cherished desires. After that, all the girls were examined by a doctor. In total, 110 female adolescents aged 11 to 18 years took part in the experiment.

    As it turns out, 85% of the volunteers focused their wishes exclusively on themselves, 32% would like to have a different relationship with others, and 10% thought about themselves and other people. According to the leading author of the study, Professor Eliana Perrin, the most common dream was the desire to get rich – 41% of the participants mentioned economic welfare. The second place went to some tangible objects such as a car or new beautiful clothes. To the scientists’ surprise, only 8% of the participants of the experiment desired good looks and a more pleasant appearance.

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    Speaking Slower Makes Women Appear Smarter


    Scientists from the University of Michigan have proved that the widespread belief about the ability of a person to influence the interlocutor with the intonation of the speech has a strong scientific base, and the ability of women to convince, in fact, may depend on how they express their point view.

    During the research, the scientists have observed the participants of various telephone conversations, and the aim of these talks was, for example, selling or campaigning.

    In total, the experts have analyzed 1380 talks, particularly in terms of the speech tempo and the most frequently used words. As it turned out, the most successful conversations were those, in which the sales manager or the campaign advisor was talking with the tempo of 3.5 words per second on average. In such cases, the participants of the conversation were much more likely to agree on the proposed products or services. People who talked too slowly were perceived by potential customers as rather incompetent or too pedantic.

    On the other hand, the leading author of the experiment, a sociology professor Jose Benko, said that an extremely fast speech tempo left a not very pleasant impression on the listeners: such interviewers were perceived by their opponents as willing to splurge and not providing correct information. In addition, natural pauses between words created positive associations, if their frequency was an average of 4 to 5 per minute. Affectedness, however, led to a negative effect.

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    Red Meat Is Harmless


    According to a new report released by World Wide Fund for Cancer Research and the American Cancer Institute, excessive consumption of red meat may lead to cancer and increase the risk of abdominal tumors in particular.

    According to the recommendations of the scientists, people should eat not more than 500 grams of pork, beef or lamb per week.

    The scientists recommend to replace red meat with food rich in fiber. It is contained in raw vegetables, fruits, legumes and some cereals.

    Cellulose is not digested in human body. But it creates the feeling of satiety and prevents overeating. In addition, it improves the activity of our bowels and helps to eliminate cholesterol from the body. Fiber reduces the activity of producing “new fat”. In addition, it has a slight diuretic effect, promoting the excretion of sodium and water. And, on the other hand, fiber is the source of potassium and vitamins.

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    Protect Yourself from Skin Cancer


    A lot of time has been spent by FDA to formulate new demands for sunscreens. Their review was announced back in 1978. What does a good sunscreen mean from the point of view of the most rigorous organization in the world?

    Protection from UVA and UVB

    Firstly, it must protect from UVA and UVB. At the same time, the well-known today SPF provides a good degree of protection only from B-rays. Since 2012 (and many manufacturers are already doing this) SPF will have to demonstrate a good level of protection from A-rays as well. The already known numbers will not change, but the higher the SPF-index is, the stronger the protection from both types of rays should be. And that is what the producers will have to prove.

    What’s the Difference between UVA and UVB?

    B-rays lead to sunburn and may cause skin cancer. But they affect only the skin surface, while A-rays penetrate deeper. They are less intense, but we get 50 times more rays of this spectrum. They provide a nice tan and – ugly skin aging. In addition, it has been proved that A-rays can damage the DNA of the skin and may also cause cancer.

    SPF 15 and Below Doesn’t Protect from Sun Rays

    Secondly, SPF 15 and below, which we got used to see on a huge number of regular day care creams, provides no protection from sun rays as such. According to the FDA representative Dr. Jill Lindstrom, people need to realize that SPF 15 and below does not reduce the risk of melanoma and does not protect from premature aging which is associated with the sun. By the way, American dermatologists are even more demanding as for the sunscreen and consider SPF 30 minimally acceptable and really effective.

    The Protection Period of Anti-Sun Creams

    Thirdly, the manufacturers of waterproof creams are required to indicate how long-lasting the protection period of their anti-sun creams is – 40 or 80 minutes. If the product is not waterproof, this must be reported on the label in big enough letters. If the manufacturer claims that the effect of the anti-sun cream lasts for two hours and more, it is necessary to prove it with clinical tests. In any case, the words like “blocking the sun rays” are not allowed. Since none of the modern sunscreens is capable of doing that.

    SPF 50 and More

    Fourthly, FDA suggests cancelling SPF-indices 50 and more, since such indexing is considered ungrounded. The present-day evidence shows that sunscreens with the index ranging from 30 to 50 are quite sufficient for children and adults with any peculiarities of skin.

    Anti-Sun Sprays

    Fifthly, the manufacturers of anti-sun sprays should prove that their products are really capable of providing the level of protection designated on the label. And it concerns the quantity rather than quality. The experts believe that sprays which are a convenient form of a sunscreen product have a major disadvantage: it is very likely that one can use too little spray, and no matter how high its quality is, it will not provide enough protection.

    Head of the American Academy of Dermatology, Ronald Moy claims that the amount of sunscreen sufficient for an adult person should be not less than the size of a ping-pong ball, and this dose should be applied every two hours. But still, the best way to protect your skin from sun rays is to spend more time in a shady place.

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    Plaster to Help Get Rid of Scars


    There has been developed a new plaster for wounds and post-operative incisions which can help avoid unsightly scars on the skin.

    The new product has been created by the doctors from Stanford University (USA). In fact, it is a cross between a plaster and ointment: the drug is a special kind of silicone. It is applied on the wound immediately after the removal of stitches. The material tightens the skin, fixing the edges of the wound firmly. As a result, the scar is reduced by 6 times on average if to compare it with the usual one. It has been proved by tests on animals and volunteers.With the help of the invention, one can even get rid of old ugly scars – it is enough to have a cosmetic surgery on their excision and put a silicone dressing on a fresh wound. The scientists suppose that the new product will be available on sale in 3-5 years.

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    Wearing Caps and Sandals Leads to Skin Cancer


    The experts from the medical center at the University of Loyola, Ill., guided by Professor of Dermatology Rebecca Tung have found that the women who regularly wear baseball caps and sandals expose themselves to a much higher risk of skin cancer.

    In her opinion, this is due to the fact that these items of clothing leave certain areas of the body open, such as the tips of the ears and the surface of the feet, which are the most vulnerable to the disease.

    As pointed out by Dr. Tung, despite the popularity of baseball caps and outdoor slippers, women should preferably select running shoes and wide-brimmed hats, which fully protect feet and head from dangerous sun rays and provide the skin with sufficient protection. The professor also notes that this risk increases when taking into account the fact that most of the girls, even among those who use sunscreen, give little attention to ears and legs.

    The danger of tanning under natural sunlight and artificial tanning lamps is constantly discussed by the experts, but, as noted by doctors, this tendency and the fashion for chocolate tint of the skin become no less wide-spread. In order to reduce the likelihood of cancer caused by ultraviolet rays to a minimum, the doctors strongly recommend avoiding exposure to the sun at lunch time and necessarily applying sunscreen with high protection factor on the skin, including, as it turns out, feet and tips of ears.

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    YSL Promotes Smoking among Women


    Despite the fact that advertising of tobacco products, as well as smoking in public places, is banned in virtually all European countries and in the United States, the experts note that this bad habit has recently become fashionable as never before, especially among women.

    For example, the designers of the Yves Saint Laurent fashion brand do not seem to be bothered by the threat of cancer and other fatal diseases. It does not prevent them from being engaged in the active promotion of their cigarettes.

    The products, placed in stylish black packages with gold lettering and logo design, are marketed primarily in Asia and Russia and are oriented namely on women. The focus, however, is on the desire of manufacturers to follow the classical traditions of the exquisite style and chic. As claimed by the psychologists, the authors of the campaign appeal to women’s vanity by making them believe that by choosing this brand of cigarettes they become associated with a certain elite.

    Advertising of YSL Cigarettes

    The purpose of advertising is to generate an impression that the girls who prefer Yves Saint Laurent cigarettes are much more attractive than the female smokers who choose other brands of tobacco products and, of course, than those ladies who do not have this bad habit at all. Deborah Arnott, one of the leaders of the Action on Smoking and Health in the United States, believes that Yves Saint Laurent should be ashamed of their actions, that, among other things, could reduce to nothing the results of the activity of their association.

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    Reasons to Eat Apples


    Scientists urge us to eat more apples – this is the best remedy for muscle atrophy! Muscle atrophy involves a number of serious problems, but no medications have been found so far to heal it.

    The researchers from the University of Iowa have started to study the activity of genes associated with muscles in order to find a substance that can interfere with the illness. They have identified the necessary component in the apple peel. This substance is ursolic acid. The experiments on mice have shown that it leads to a 15-percent increase of the muscle mass. However, the total weight of the rodents fed with this acid remained the same, while the amount of fat reduced by more than a half, according to the study published in the Cell Metabolism journal. The scientists believe that the role of ursolic acid consists in reprogramming the genes that are responsible for the loss of muscle mass and its replacement with fat.

    As for the apples, they can also lower blood sugar levels, the level of harmful fatty acids and cholesterol. In addition, according to the scientists, this fruit helps with diabetes due to its natural properties.

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    Computer Games Cause Arthritis


    Adolescent enthusiasm about gaming devices and SMS service may be the reason for rheumatoid arthritis in adulthood. This is the conclusion that the scientists from University Hospital of joint diseases, New York, have reached.

    The scientists say the research has shown the negative impact of computer games and mobile phones on the joints of nine-year-old children. According to Yusuf Yazichi, MD, it raises concerns about the impact of modern technology on their future life. As a rule, the children who use these devices for a long time, experience soreness in their fingers and wrists.

    The study has found that girls experience pain more often than boys, possibly because they send more SMS messages – up to 50 a day.

    Pain usually appears 2 hours after the continuous use of electronic devices and only gets worse with time.

    Since repeated movements lead to injuries of tendons, it creates favorable conditions for the appearance of rheumatoid arthritis in the joints. There is every reason to believe that the fun derived from innocent use of electronic devices will turn into serious problems in the future.

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    Hands Free Breastpump Bra for Busy Moms


    Any hands free device is worth a try, and this one is sure to win your praise for convenience and efficaciousness. New moms do have their hands full, and the Simple Wishes Hands Free Breastpump Bra goes a long way to take a load off their hands. No matter what kind of breastpump you use, you can attach it to this bra and leave it to do its bit turning your hands and mind to other tasks. It’s so completely functional, it will look good on you and it’s affordable for $28.Made from soft material, the Simple Wishes Bra embraces the body comfortably whatever your curves are. You don’t need to take off other clothing to put it on, just get it on over your shirt or nursing bra. Whether to wear it with or without straps is up to you. Let it take care of your breastpumping for you and get extra time to do what you need or just to relax.

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    Acne Breakout Make Up Tips From Collier Strong


    Acne is a medical condition that effects as many adults as teenagers. A study in the American Academy of Dermatology found that 50.9 percent of women, and 42.5 percent of men between the ages of 20-29 reported having acne.

    Having suffered the most severe kind of acne myself, which has left me scared physically and emotionally, I urge anyone who has acne, or knows someone with it, to encourage them to seek the help of a Dermatologist and with the Doctors help get the condition under control before it makes lasting scars.

    Once your Dermatologist says its ok for you to wear makeup choose products that are oil free and use clean brushes and sponges to apply them.

    If you are having a breakout you can conceal the problem by neutralizing the redness with a green tinted color corrector, such as the one from L'Oreal's Studio Secrets line.

    Next use a yellow under toned foundation to add coverage.

    If you only have a single pimple and the rest of your skin is fine then just address it by using a concealer that has a thicker consistency applied with a clean brush and dot some powder on the spot to help the coverage last.

    Next use what I call the "art of distraction" to draw the attention away from the problem area.

    For example if you have a break out on your chin, play up your eyes. If you have a breakout on the cheeks avoid using pink blush unless you are able to conceal the breakout completely as any pink tones can make the condition look worse.

    Also, using pinks and reds on the lips if you are having a breakout can make the condition look worse, so go natural with lipstick or gloss.

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    Breast Implants Are Not For Ever, Says FDA

    A new FDA consumer update has reiterated that Silicone Breast Implants are safe and effective, but has cautioned women that implants in general are not 'lifetime devices' and carry risks.

    In 1992, following reports that silicone breast implants were responsible for connective tissue diseases in some women, the FDA suspended their use for cosmetic surgery .

    However after rigorous evaluation, the Institute of Medicine concluded that there is "no definitive evidence linking breast implants to cancer, neurological diseases, neurological problems or other systemic diseases."

    In 2006, the FDA lifted its moratorium on their use for women who are at least 22 years old, following advances in silicone gel filled implants, which now use a more cohesive gel and a more durable shell.

    While lifting the ban, the agency asked manufacturers to conduct follow-up studies to learn more about the long-term performance and safety of the devices.

    The FDA's new update is based on preliminary safety data from these studies, as well as other safety information from recent scientific publications and adverse events reported to FDA.

    According to the update, the longer a woman keeps her implants, the greater is the risk of complications that will mandate their removal or replacement.

    The most frequently observed complications are tightening of the area around the implant (capsular contracture), additional surgeries, and implant removal. Other complications include a tear or hole in the outer shell (implant rupture), wrinkling, uneven appearance (asymmetry), scarring, pain, and infection.

    "Studies to date do not indicate that silicone gel-filled breast implants cause breast cancer, reproductive problems, or connective tissue disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis," says the FDA report. "However, no study has been large enough or long enough to completely rule out these and other rare complications."

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    Get Rid of Defected Genes


    A girl who will never get sick with breast cancer was born in the clinic of London’s University College Hospital. Her parents and doctors have taken all possible measures to avoid this disease.

    Three generations of women in her father’s family had the defective gene and got ill with cancer after the age of 20. The scientists say that the women with this gene may develop breast cancer with a probability of 50% to 80%.

    The embryos resulting from artificial insemination were subjected to genetic analysis. As a result, the mother received the embryo without the defective gene – the so-called BRCA 1 which is responsible for inheriting the risk of breast cancer.

    Thus, the British couple was the first pair who could adjust the genetics of their unborn baby. As a result, subsequent generations of this family will get rid of genetic predisposition to this tumor.

    According to the attending physician Paul Serhal from University College Hospital in London, there is no guarantee that the child will never have breast cancer because this disease can develop without any hereditary predisposition. However, the scientists have thus managed to significantly reduce the risk of breast cancer.

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    Abandoned Children’s DNA Damaged


    U.S. scientists have conducted a study in Romanian orphanages and found a striking fact: the adverse environment and unhappy childhood shorten telomeres. Telomeres are terminal parts of chromosomes that regulate cell aging. That is, abandoned children will get older faster and will live less…

    The researchers compared two groups of children: those who had stayed in the orphanage, and those who had been adopted. The total number was more than a hundred people. The result clearly showed the tendency: the more time the children had spent at the orphanage by the age of 5 years, the shorter their telomeres became at the age of 6-10 years. Thus, we can assume that the “irrelevance” of these children is literally written in DNA and shortens life on the subtlest of all levels.

    The researchers continue to work and expect to determine whether telomeres are restored after the successful adoption of children or this damage is irreversible.

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    Traveling Despite Asthma and Allergies


    Healthy TipsTraveling can expose you to New Triggers for Allergies and Asthma, but planning ahead can help you Breathe a bit easier while you're away.
    The Asthma & Immunologist offers Travel suggestions:
    • Pack your asthma and allergy meds in carry-on bags, and keep them in their original containers.
    • Continue to take your medications on schedule as directed by your doctor.
    • Prepare for potential problems, such as food allergies.
    • Keep contact information for your allergist and an emergency contact handy.
    • If possible, find an allergist at your travel destination.
    Related Sites: Pharmacyproductinfo, Pharmacy News.
     
     

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      Wrinkles Are the Sign of Osteoporosis


      Deep wrinkles may be a sign of increased bone fragility and osteoporosis. It has been stated by a group of scientists from Yale University (USA).

      They have surveyed women at the age of 40-50 years, who entered their menopause, and have thoroughly studied the location and the pattern of wrinkles on the face and neck. Bone density was measured by ultrasound. There was a clear correlation: the more wrinkles the woman had and the stronger they were expressed, the more fragile bones she had. Smooth-skinned women could be proud of having strong healthy bones. The relationship is probably due to the fact that the formation of skin and bones implies the use of the same structural protein collagen.

      Diagnosis of wrinkles is rather accurate. Moreover, the experts admit that this discovery will help avoid expensive surveys in the future. In the meantime, all women with deep wrinkles are advised to undergo densitometry.

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      Cleaning up May Lead to Depression


      The passion for cleanness may lead to depression. It has been declared by the scientists from Atlanta, Georgia State.In an effort to have frequent cleaning in the house, we impose our immune system to the aggressive influence of bacteria and infections which are contained in particles of dust and dirt, and therefore weaken the immune system. The weakened immune system overreacts to dust and dirt causing allergies. This slows down the production in the brain of some important chemicals, including serotonin (the hormone of happiness), which promotes the development of depression. It is therefore recommended to clean the apartment not more than once a week and to do the general cleaning once in three or four months.

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      Medical Condition Busy Lifestyle Sundrome


      Scottish psychologists have described a new modern disease which is called “a busy lifestyle syndrome” – the syndrome of employment.

      The Italian popular science magazine Psicologia e Salute informs about it. The illness strikes those who are most prone to vanity, information overload, over-active lifestyle, and chronic lack of sleep.

      The scientists claim that the syndrome of employment lies in the sudden memory lapses and general forgetfulness which is typical of not only mature, but more and more young people who belong to the so-called “active age” – between 25 and 40 years. The main reason, according to the experts, is that the brain of modern people desperately lacks rest. As you know, the tired brain will memorize and notice less.

      Forgetfulness in young people is not a signal of problems with the brain – the experts stress in the pages of the magazine. If it is assumed to be normal that we regularly forget one-tenth of what is happening in our lives, then in the case of superactive lifestyles the part of “forgotten” information inevitably increases.

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      Low Carb Diets Do Work


      U.S. scientists have proved the usefulness of low-carbohydrate diets. According to the study conducted by a team of scientists from the University of Alabama, even a small reduction in consuming carbohydrates can lead to a significant decrease in the amount of deep fat in the abdominal area.

      According to the author of the research, Dr. Barbara Gower, it may also reduce the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

      In the process of the study, the researchers analyzed various types of diets that differed in the amount of carbohydrates. The participants of the study, who had reduced their consumption of carbohydrates, had 11% less fat in the abdominal area if compared with other participants.

      The leading products which contain carbohydrates are cereals (buckwheat, rice, oats), beans, wheat and rye bread. A huge concentration of carbohydrates is observed in confectionery products: marshmallows, chocolate, caramel, butter cookies, etc. The consumption of these products is reduced in low-carbohydrate diets, and partially substituted for proteins.

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      Nutritional Plat


      Department of Agriculture of the USA regulated weight loss as a public policy. Instead of the traditional food pyramid, the model of a nutritional plate is institutionalized. So what are the Americans recommended to eat to lose weight?Half of the nutritional plate is occupied by vegetables (green) and fruits (red), slightly more than a quarter is for cereal products: grains, pasta, bread (brown), and slightly less than a quarter is occupied by proteins: meat, fish, cheese, cottage cheese, nuts, and beans (purple). Small servings of dairy products (protein as well) are given separately. If this dairy part of the plate is added to the protein component, there will be a fairly accurate division of the right half of the plate between the grains and protein food.

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      Cells Storage Approved in Britain


      Those who have not had time to create a storage of stem cells of umbilical cord blood can now store stem cells from adult human blood in a special bank.

      According to Atoll Haas, the chief executive officer of the company which coordinates the project, 10 billion cells, which can give rise to various tissues, can possibly be obtained from 80 ml of blood of an adult person. This is a kind of medical investment and an additional chance to take advantage of the opportunities of modern biomedicine.

      The list of diseases that in future can be cured with the help of stem cells is impressive: cancer, diabetes, stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, etc. The cost of collecting blood, separating stem cells from it, and storing them during the period of 20 years will be 2,495 pounds. It is comparable to the service of storing stem cells from the umbilical cord blood. If the project is successfully launched in the UK, the proponents will suggest implementing it in other countries within a short period of time.

      According to the director of Gemabank, the bank of stem cells, Alexander Prikhodko, this service is likely to be demanded by people. However, umbilical cord blood is much richer in stem cells, and the possibilities of its use are beyond competition. They are the youngest cells which can be safely obtained from a human being and therefore do not carry any results of the harmful influence of the environment and way of life.

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      Male Pill Is on the Way


      Contraceptive pills for men had been under development for a long time until the researchers from Columbia University (USA) finally announced the completion of the work in the nearest future.

      The new drug temporarily stops sperm production not having a long-term impact on male fertility. It is enough to stop taking it, and spermatogenesis will quickly return to its norm. The action of the pills is based on a complex mechanism in which the male body ceases to recycle vitamin A that is responsible for sperm production. Unlike previous versions of these contraceptives, this pill does not reduce the level of the principal male sex hormone testosterone and does not contain steroids.

      The experiments on rodents have not revealed any side effects; the scientists hope to conduct tests on human volunteers in the next few years after which the new drug can be registered and put on sale.

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      Woman Smoked 3,500 Cigarettes during Pregnancy


      This young mother would be no different from the millions of other young moms in the world, but there is just one shag. She not only smoked during her pregnancy, but also invented her own theory why tobacco smoke could be useful for an unborn baby.

      The British TV channel BBC3 regularly broadcasts the program which is called Misbehaving Mums To Be. A kind of “anti-record” in popularity among all the latest participants belongs, undoubtedly, to a 20-year-old Charlie Wilcox and her baby daughter Lilly, who is only 14 weeks.

      The editors of the TV program have found Charlie Wilcox in a small English town of Rainham, Kent.

      The “unique” young mother told the entire country that during the first six months of pregnancy she had continued to smoke from 15 to 20 cigarettes every day, and only during the last three months she had reduced the number of cigarettes to 5 per day. However, a total number of cigarettes which had been poisoning her and the future child during the period of 9 months was more than 3,500 cigarettes.

      The young mother also told that the doctors who had been watching her during the pregnancy had measured the level of carbon monoxide in her blood, as one of the combustion products of tobacco, and found that there had been 6 times more carbon monoxide in the body of the pregnant Charlie than acceptable for the normal fetal development.

      However, the strange (if not to say more) mother claimed that oxygen deprivation that the body of her daughter had suffered from had a positive effect. According to Charlie, it had stimulated the heart of the baby, making it to “pump” more blood to supply the tissues with oxygen.

      Charlie Wilcox, who has been smoking since 14 years, has also provided the program with an “irrefutable” argument in favor of her theory.

      She said that one of her friends, who had also been smoking from school age, learned that she was pregnant and immediately gave up cigarettes. However, during the 4th month she suffered a miscarriage, as the unreasonable young mother explained the viewers.

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      Pole Dancing 3-Year-Olds


      Seeking to break fresh grounds, the UK’s Make Me Fabulous dance studio in Northampton offers a range of activities outside dancing – like meditation, Zumba or pole dancing. The Daily Mail reported on their latest innovative idea to call in pre-teen and teen children for their share of pole dancing in a class named “Little Spinners.”

      While it may sound somewhat controversial at the first approach, the studio – and class instructor Carly Wilford in particular – are surely out to divest pole dancing of any sexual connotation to which Wilford refers as “stigma.” They invite people to look on the practice as something akin to gym that helps train balance feeling and shape the body in exercises that look more like fun than strain. The new class is described on the studio’s website as a way to teach youngsters to move freely, “lift, spin, climb and fly in a safe and fun environment.” Besides, it is meant to build up their self-esteem.

      A different view is harbored, though, within other organizations like anti-bullying charity Kidscape. The purely physical aspect of the class may be laudable for conjoining exercise and games, but – as pointed out by Kidscape’s director Claude Knights – there is a social aspect that cannot be so easily ignored. Some of the movements are definitely raunchy, and the fact that many younger kids aged from 3 to 7 don’t understand their adult significance won’t help if they inadvertently place themselves in a dangerous situation because of the messages their bodies will be sending out.

      There are all kinds of fun, after all, and some of them are hardly appropriate for underage kids – does pole dancing belong with these?

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      FDA Announces New Sunscreen Guidelines


      The FDA on Tuesday, June 14, announced new guidelines for sunscreen labels, after more than three decades.

      Under the new guidelines that become effective from the summer of 2012, products will be tested for protection against both UVA and UVB radiation . Earlier, they were being tested for protection against just UVB radiation.

      The following are the important guideline changes:

      1. Sunscreen labels cannot claim protection against skin cancer or early skin aging unless the product protects from both UVA and UVB radiation. Products that don't protect against both, or have a SPF of less than 15, will be required to carry the warning - "This product has been shown only to help prevent sunburn, not skin cancer or early skin aging."

      2. Companies will also no longer be able to claim an SPF greater than 50, unless they can provide results of further testing that support a higher number.

      3. A product must protect against UVA and UVB radiation to be labeled broad spectrum. Up to now, products could be labeled broad spectrum if they protected against UVB.

      4. A product cannot claim to be waterproof, or sweat-proof, or a sunblock. No ingredient can totally block the sun and there's no product that is waterproof.

      The new guidelines will make it easier for consumers to pick a sunscreen: Look for a Broad Spectrum product with an SPF of at least 15.

      Most dermatologists recommend a broad spectrum, water-resistant sunscreen of SPF 30 or higher.

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      Celeb Body in the Gym


      The network of London’s Gymbox fitness clubs offers its clients new classes. Here one can “order” the body to her own taste: that of Beyonce, Kylie Minogue, Kim Kardashian or resembling Pippa Middleton.

      The instructors wear T-shirts with the names of these four celebrities. You attend the classes with a certain instructor depending on what body you choose. The course of “A Celeb Body like…” lasts for six weeks, and each trainer offers a variety of methods to achieve the goal.

      For example, if you attend the course “A Body like Pippa”, your training will mainly consist of Pilates, and in order to “sculpt” a body like that of Beyonce, you will need dancing, toning and more strength exercises.

      Of course, the author of the idea does not exclude the important role that genetics plays in shaping our body. So, the course of trainings called “A Celeb Body like…” is more of an advertising campaign. But at the same time, Herbert Schmale (the Gymbox manager who came up with a new service) found that practicing different loads can generate different results, therefore he does not consider his idea to be completely fictional.

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      Birth Control Injection for Men


      We all expect wonders from science, and maybe the one concerning birth control took a fairly long time coming, but here it is at last: a scientist in India came up with an injection that is guaranteed to prevent undesirable conception – and keep on preventing it for the next 10 years! What about it as the wonder of the year?

      Furthermore, the treatment is reported to be 100% efficacious and have no side effects at all. It is named RISUG that is short for “reversible inhibition of sperm under guidance.” Yes, the research showed that its effect can be completely reversed at any time.

      A man can get RISUGged in 15 minutes rendering himself totally unable to impregnate a woman. It is not a very comfortable procedure, because it entails two injections into the scrotum, but compared to 10 safe years (maybe even longer) it can be a small price to pay. Thorough research showed that 100% result is guaranteed. Whenever the man wants his fatherhood back all he has to do is bear a couple of injections more. What can be simpler?

      What actually happens down there is that the sperm, as it passes along a tube on the way from the testicles out, is being waylaid. The injection provides for the presence in the tube of a positively charged polymer. The sperm have a negative charge, and the charge differential the polymer creates destroys them all – none is left to refute the law of physics. The polymer is absolutely non-toxic and it doesn’t clog the tube.

      The only reason why the new invention hasn’t swept the world so far is that the procedure is not very profitable. Injecting a comparatively cheap polymer which doesn’t need any renewal for 10 years is no way to carry on a business, while there is male hormonal birth control that is the result of many years’ research and requires additional medication every month. The way drug companies’ minds turn is pretty obvious, eh?

      But there’s a private foundation in the US that took on a hefty task of getting RISUG officially approved. It’s an uphill work for Parsemus (as the company is called) but they are getting people interested – with the current result of receiving $100,000 from the Gates Foundation for the research of the effect of RISUG on women.

      In India RISUG is already on the verge of approval – the trials for the final phase of study are underfoot, and chances are it will be available for anyone in a matter of a few years.

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      Avoid Back Pain While Travelling in a Car

      HealthnfitnessTips: Traveling long distances in a car can take a Toll on your back. Here is some useful tips to prevent you from the car while Driving or Traveling for a long distances.

      Tips to how keep Back Pain at Bay during a Car Travel:
      • Adjust your seat so you're sitting comfortably close to the wheel, with your knees just higher than your hips.

      • Use a back support.

      • Take Regular Breaks to rest.

      • Stretch your toes, leg muscles and shoulders as you drive.

      • Keep hands on the Steering Wheel at the 3:00 and 7:00 positions, alternating occasionally with the 10:00 and 2:00 positions.

      • Keep a Relaxed Grip on the wheel, occasionally tightening, then loosening, your hold.

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      Cartons May Cause Cancer


      Swiss scientists supervised by Dr. Connie Grob have discovered that cartons, in which the flakes are sold, are dangerous to human health.

      As it turned out, the use of old paper for producing recycled cardboard and mineral oils in the paint can lead to the contamination of food.

      More than a half of carton in Europe is the product of recycling. But the analysis has revealed that the content of mineral oils in packaged foods exceeds the norm in more than 100 times. The scientists state that the evaporation of oils can occur even within the plastic package of flakes.

      One of the producers of cereals, Jordans, has already announced the transition to a carton made of primary products. Many companies have also familiarized themselves with the results of the study and stated that they are now considering the possibility of changes, but do not promise an instant decision.

      Mineral oils are associated with the development of inflammation of internal organs and cancer. Flour, rice, pasta, and cereals for breakfast are of particular concern. The British Food Standards Agency has commented on the relevance of the study, but says that it is early to draw conclusions. The information about high oil content in food packaging is just being collected now.

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      Enteric Infection from Europe Already in the USA


      The dangerous intestinal infection which has already caused 19 deaths in Europe might have already moved across the Atlantic ocean. In the USA, in Oklahoma, the doctors examined four children with the symptoms similar to those with which the people from the Old World addressed the hospitals. However, it is so far impossible for the specialists to determine how the dangerous virus has appeared in America.

      According to Caitlin Snyder, the spokeswoman from the Health Department in Tulsa, Oklahoma, the diagnosis of two patients has already been confirmed. The twins have got ill, and they are in hospital now. Two more children are suspected of having E. coli. The results of laboratory tests should be ready in a day.

      Despite the fact that the source of the virus has not yet been established in Europe, the experts from the university clinic in Hamburg report that they have managed to decipher the genome of E. coli that will help develop an effective treatment in the nearest future.

      More than 2 thousand people in Germany are now in hospitals with a dangerous diagnosis. There are many cases of the disease in Sweden, Denmark, and the Netherlands. Separate cases of the infection were recorded in Poland, Spain, the Czech Republic, and Norway.

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      Headache Causes


      The bad news: good food, flowers, hot weather, even colleagues and, moreover, the boss can cause headaches. The good news: knowing these reasons, the risk of an attack can be reduced to zero.

      Stressful Job Causes Migraine

      Anything that increases the level of stress can cause tension headaches or migraine. Tension headache is associated with the increased sensitivity of nerve pathways in the brain, which transfer pain. Migraine causes the release of chemicals which dilate blood vessels and even trigger inflammatory reactions. This is manifested in a case of migraine.

      Hot Weather and Headache

      Statistical studies have shown that headaches happen more often in hot weather. With the increase of temperature for 5 degrees the risk of headaches increases for 7,5%. Low pressure which usually precedes rain also provokes tension headache.

      Smells and Headache

      A strong odor – even enjoyable – can cause a migraine attack. Why this is happening is not clear. Smells might stimulate the nervous system. Most often, paint, perfume and some flowers become the source of a dangerous smell.

      How Physical Activity Leads to Headache

      Intense exercise – aerobic, strength exercises, and even sex – can lead to headaches. Physical efforts make the vessels of the head and neck “inflate”. This creates additional pressure and headaches.

      Poor Posture Habits Cause Headache

      Straining exercises in the gym are not necessary to get a headache. Drooping shoulders and a bad back of the seat which provides no support for the back, too low or high monitor or the habit of holding the phone between the ear and shoulder – all this also contributes to tension headaches.

      Eating Cheese Provokes Migraine

      Brie, cheddar, feta, parmesan, mozzarella, Swiss … Cheese contains a substance called tyramine which provokes headache (here we are talking merely about migraine attacks). The older the cheese is, the more tyramine it has, and the higher the risk is.

      Red Wine Increases Headache

      Tyramine is also found in red wine and some other alcoholic beverages. Moreover, alcohol makes the blood flow to the head, and it can exacerbate the pain.

      Eating Meat Cuts May End up with Headache

      Delicious meat cuts also contain tyramine, although in smaller quantity. In addition to tyramine, they may contain synthetic food additives, nitrates or nitrites (for color, preservation, etc.) that may cause the flow of blood to the head among some people. This pain is usually felt on both sides of the head. Whereas in the classical case of migraine headache is felt on one side.

      Hunger Causes Headache

      If you have missed lunch or dinner, headache can torture you even before you feel hungry. However, it is risky to get rid of the pain with the help of chocolates or cookies – the sweets will cause a sharp rise in blood sugar, and then even a more steep decline, i.e. even a more acute sense of hunger.

      Second-Hand Smoking and Headache

      Smoking is a well-known provocateur of headache. Not the headache of the smoker himself, but rather of those around him. Nicotine constricts blood vessels, including the brain, which can also cause pain.

      Too Much Coffee Leads to Headache

      For people suffering from headache, coffee is often included in the category “cannot live without it … and cannot live with it either”. In moderate amount, caffeine is even useful. It is known that it is a part of some medicines for headache. But if you drink it cup after cup, it produces the opposite effect. However, when the coffee lover suddenly decides to give up coffee, it may become a reason for a new headache. One should return to the optimal healthy dose very carefully and gradually.

      Headache Relief Tips

      If the headaches happen very often, it is necessary to find out the reasons. And for that, one should make a kind of a diary and record when and under what circumstances the headache appeared, what food was eaten at that time. Massage, stretching, healthy eating and proper rest are very helpful to get rid of headache. One should not take too much medicine for headache. If the pain is strong and appears regularly, one must see a doctor. Any pain is a signal that it is necessary to change something!

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      Lunch to Help Women Lose Weight


      The psychologists from Birmingham University say that if a girl constantly has a diet and struggles with overweight, a full dinner will help her solve the problem.

      A hearty meal will help reduce the number of snacks per day which are the main cause of excessive weight. The study has been conducted with the participation of three groups of people. Each one was offered the same dishes for dinner. The first group of participants had to focus their attention on the dinner, the second group was offered a newspaper article that included a variety of recipes and other helpful articles about food – instead of dinner, and the third group could combine the tasks of the first two groups.

      According to this experiment, the scientists tried to find out whether the participants remembered how their dinner was held and what they ate. Dr. Suzanne Higgs, a leading researcher at the University of Psychology, said that if the maximum focus was on lunch, then those memories would later help the girls survive longer without having a snack. The participants of the study were asked to focus on the edibility of food and remember its color and smell. Also, they had to pay their utmost attention to the process of chewing and swallowing, that is, attention had to be given to each piece individually.

      After lunch, the participants were asked to recall and describe what they had eaten. Then they were offered another cookie. However, most of the participants refused. Hence, the scientists have concluded that there is a direct link between the vivid memories of the main meal and subsequent snacks. The high concentration of attention on the dinner will help the girls avoid further meals.

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      Unhealthy Habits


      As we have mentioned, the scientists from Atlanta, Ga., have come to the conclusion that obsession with cleanness may be the direct cause of depression. Today the list of negative habits has been complemented by the Daily Mail.

      Frequent washing

      According to the consulting doctor and the dermatologist from London’s Cranley Clinic, Nick Lowe, very hot water combined with hard soap degreases the skin leading to its dryness and dehydration. According to the doctor, most of us do not necessarily need to wash thoroughly every day.

      Night’s sleep

      According to Professor Jim Horn from the Center for Sleep Studies and Loughborough University, 8 hours of sleep cause fatigue. It is much more useful not to torture yourself if you have suddenly woken up at night and can not fall asleep again. Do something useful: read a book or do a Scanword. The body itself will tell you when it wants to sleep. By the way, a short, from 4 to 15 minutes, nap during the day is comparable in its effectiveness to more than an hour’s sleep at night. Horn claims that hundreds of years ago it was a common practice to divide everyday sleep into several segments.

      Rinsing the mouth after brushing your teeth

      Phil Stemmer, the dentist from the London-based Centre for Healthy Breath advises to resist the temptation to rinse your mouth after brushing your teeth, since it washes away the fluoride-based protective coating which is applied together with your toothpaste. In addition, the dentist says it is important not to brush your teeth immediately after eating because the food temporarily softens the tooth enamel, and it takes about half an hour to let it harden again.

      Irregular breathing

      Therapist and head of the Society for Stress Management, Neil Shah, claims that adults tend to make excessive use of thoracic breathing. As a result, stale air stagnates in the lower part of lungs, and it is in this part of them that the most effective vessels in terms of gas exchange are concentrated. One should breathe with the stomach and do it regularly and rhythmically, making from 12 to 20 cycles per minute, with a short pause between inhalation and exhalation.

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      Health Benefits of Drinking Alcohol


      Absolute refusal from the use of alcohol increases the risk of cardio-vascular diseases. The report on this issue has been presented at the annual conference of the American Heart Association in Chicago.According to the statistics, not to drink at all is even more harmful than drinking in small amounts,” the expert from women’s cardiology at the Mayo Clinic Sharon Hayes says. Thus, the drinking men, who underwent coronary bypass surgery, had the 25% lower risk of heart attack than those who did not drink alcohol. Comparable statistics is also observed among women. The only difference is that they are generally less likely to suffer from heart diseases. Microdoses of alcohol strengthen the blood vessels, those of brain in particular, and prevent the early development of dementia, as the doctors have noticed.

      However, in case of using more than 5 servings of alcohol the risk of illnesses and death from them increases. The doctors underline that women can drink one glass of red wine a day, and men – not more than two glasses. “Moderate use of alcohol can be called one of the keys to maintaining health throughout life,” Dr. Erin Mihos at Johns Hopkins University concludes.

      However, this does not mean that non-drinkers should urgently and entirely review their attitude to alcohol. “If you do not drink, it’s better not to start”, Erin Mihos summarized.

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      Improves Sperm Quality Thro Vitamin D


      Vitamin D which is synthesized by the body under the influence of sunlight is essential for human reproduction, and its deficiency can lead to a decrease in velocity of spermatozoa.

      This is the conclusion that the researchers from the University of Copenhagen have reached. They studied the relationship between the number of motile sperm and the level of vitamin D in the blood of the volunteers. The two parameters were evaluated among 300 healthy men who were invited to take part in the study. It turned out that the men whose serum did not have enough vitamin D, had less motile sperm. It also turned out that the stimulation of spermatozoa with activated vitamin D can increase the speed of their movement.

      However, the scientists warn that this does not mean that supplements with vitamin D can improve the quality of sperm of men who experience certain problems with conceiving. There is only one recommendation so far: if you want to have better sperm, do not ignore the sun. But get sunburnt with moderation!

      For information: the time of safe exposure to the sun without a sunscreen is about 15-20 minutes. Still, the doctors recommend not to go out on the street in summer without having used a cream with SPF for your skin, especially during a vacation on the beach.

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      Ectopic Pregnancy Ends up with a Baby’s Birth


      A very rare case in medical practice has occurred in a clinic in the U.S. state of Arizona. Ectopic pregnancy has ended up with a birth of a completely healthy child.

      When the expectant mother of Nick Soto learned her diagnosis, she refused categorically to have an abortion. However, the doctors insisted on it. Ectopic pregnancy is mortally dangerous for the mother. As a rule, it is interrupted at an early stage.

      However, the woman said she would try to give birth to a child. And the doctors agreed to help her. For a few months, the patient had been in hospital for a period of special preservation. And during the 32nd week she underwent cesarean section. The infant who weighed less than one and a half kilograms at birth, was named Cruz.

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      Music and Brain


      Study conducted by American gerontologists, has shown that music education is able to maintain the sharpness of mind until the senile age.

      The PLOS One scientific journal writes about the study. The scientists have found that going in for music for a long time creates a number of alternative connections in the brain which are able to compensate for the violation of cognitive abilities in the elderly age.

      The experts have invited a few dozens of volunteers aged 63 to 80 years to participate in the study. They were divided into three groups: no musical education; one year to nine years of studying at a music school; ten and more than ten years of music education. The representatives of the “music groups” began to play musical instruments at the age of 10. More than 50 percent of them played the piano, 25 percent played the flute or clarinet. The others dealt with strings, percussion and wind instruments. In addition, all the participants of the study had the same level of general education.

      The researchers asked the participants to go through several psychological and intelligence tests. The results showed that the participants, who had complete music education, showed better results if to compare with those who never learned to play musical instruments. In addition, nearly 50 percent of musically educated volunteers continued to perform music during the period of the experiment, but it turned out that their results were better than of those who had stopped their training a few years before.

      Thus, the researchers have concluded that the duration of learning music is more important than the fact of playing musical instruments in one’s elderly years, as the PLOS One journal suggests.

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      Happiest Time of Your Life


      One should not be afraid of the old age, as several international studies show. For most people it is the happy time. The most important thing is to overcome the most difficult period from 30 to 45 years with dignity.

      We are the most harmonious and the happiest at the beginning and at the end of life, but the average age is for most people the most psychologically complex one. Such conclusion has been reached by the Belgian scientist Bert van Landegem from the University of Maastricht. His research shows that satisfaction with life starts to decrease closer to 30 years and returns to the high level only after 50-55 years.

      Of course, elderly people do not get back their youthful nonchalance, but they begin to have fun and derive joy from life on a new level. The researcher claims that hardly anyone of the 65-year-olds would prefer their age to, let us say, 25 years. But at the same time, it might seem paradoxical that most of the 65-year old people are more satisfied with life than the 25-year-olds.

      Other scientists agree with the Belgian researcher. For example, Lewis Wolpert, professor emeritus of biology at University College London, believes that optimism and satisfaction drop significantly by the age of 30 years and begin to grow again from about 45 years, reaching their peak when people are 70 or 80 years old. The survey of more than 340 thousand people, conducted by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, has shown exactly the same result: in our mid-50s, we begin to look at the world with more and more optimism.

      This is largely due to the fact that over the years we begin to truly appreciate everything we have. In addition, with age, when family and career are already built, we begin to devote more time to our hobbies and do not have any remorse when we abandon the things which bring us no joy.

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      Holidays Packing Is a Great Workout


      There’s something to be said for arriving at your seaside hotel in good trim with extra calories burned out of your system and cut a nice figure on the beach. So take care to go through the preparation stage thoroughly, for it amounts to a pretty intensive workout.

      A survey carried out by Hotels.com established that holiday makers lose something like 500 calories on the way to their resting spot, which is the same as the result of an hour-long cardio workout.

      It may come as a surprise at first – until you remember yourself scurrying about the home picking up the necessary things and then handling those bags that feel as if they weighed a ton.

      So no wonder that 46% of vacationers feel like they’ve just stepped out of gym upon arrival at their destination. And 22% agree easily that shelping their baggage around provides them with an excellent weight-lifting workout during the holiday.

      There’s no arguing with it, since the average person carries more than 3,000 kilos of baggage during his or her life. On second thought, maybe only “his life”, for 32% of women are ready to trust their suitcase to their male partner, as it emerged. Of course, that really goes to show how mindful of their men they are, helping them build up some muscles.

      A spokesperson for Hotels.com reminded travellers that they don’t lose precious time while standing in lines or going through various trip stages – the “baggage workout” gets them into a better shape and more intent on enjoying their rest.

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      Identify the Signs of Food Allergy Tips


      Food allergy reactions range from mild to life-threatening, depending on the person.

      Some common warning signs of a Milder Allergic Reaction to food may include:
      • A Tight feeling in the throat, or a hoarse voice.
      • Coughing and Wheezing.
      • Nausea, vomiting or stomach pain.
      • Diarrhea.
      • Hives or Skin Rash.
      • A Tingling sensation on the lips or tongue.
      • Runny nose.
      In more serious cases, food allergy may cause a severe reaction called Anaphylaxis, which may cause a person's breathing pathways to narrow, blood pressure to drop, and tongue to swell. This should be treated as a life-threatening medical emergency.

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      Oldest Living Woman


      It is the first time that a claim for longevity from Brazil has been properly ascertained after about three months’ verification, so this time is special – Craig Glenday, Guinness World Records editor-in-chief, said in his comment on a Brazilian woman being recognized as the oldest living person on the globe.

      Having 114 years and 10 months under her belt, Brazil’s own Maria Gomes Valentim has become a Guinness World Record breaker once it was established that she was born a month and half earlier than the previous title-bearer, Besse Cooper from Monroe, Ga. Both women were born back – very far back – in 1896, during the reign of Queen Victoria. Glenday reminded that no-one heard of the Ford Motor Company those days, and no-one sang Summertime, for George Gershwin wasn’t to come into the world for another three years.

      It took Guinness people some time to reach the supercentenarian who lives in Carangola, a mountain town in Brazil, several hours’ drive from Rio de Janeiro. Valentim let the researchers examine her birth certificate, marriage license and other papers that confirmed her age beyond doubt.

      Valentim’s husband died in 1946; they had a son. Now her descendants include four grandchildren, seven great-grandchildren and five great-great-grandchildren.

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